Tag Archives: Firewall

Fortigate 5.4 – Named policies

Fortigate has done a great job with the 5.4 firmware. Its a big change from 5.2 but once you get going with it, you will find things are structured very well. For example the “Monitor” category is a great way to get everything you need, instead of going through each individual category.

One feature of 5.4 that really “Grinds my gears” is the named policy feature. The feature itself is awesome, great way to put in a name on a policy such as “Students to internet”.. etc.  But, they make it mandatory to put in a name by default. What’s so aggregating about this is that if you upgrade to 5.4 from 5.2 all of your policies are unnamed, so when you modify one of those existing policies you HAVE to put in a name. The following will show how to turn that feature off, so it is not mandatory you put in a name. You still can, just don’t have to.

Below you will see what happens when you try to create that policy , and the the feature has not been disabled. You get the “This field is required.” error. It will not let you create or modify the policy until that is filled in.


To disable this feature, go to system-Feature select- then check “Allow unnamed policies”. Once you press Apply this will let you bypass the mandatory name feature.



Fortigate 5.2+ SSL VPN Address

You can use a different IP address to answer for the SSL VPN.

Lets say that your interface IP (The default IP address that is used with the SSL VPN) already has HTTPS (443) forwarded in to a internal server, and you really want the SSL VPN port to be 443. You have an option.

You can add a secondary IP  address under the WAN interface that does not have a reservation already for 443. Then use this IP address for the SSL VPN.

To do so:


Add your secondary IP address – Note this has to be a public address, given to you by your ISP..

Then go into the VPN settings and modify the port for what you want. Notice that the address it says will work is still the primary IP, even though the secondary will work just fine.


Fortigate Fortios 5.0 SSL VPN Configuration

The best information available for anything fortinet is always found at docs.fortinet.com. This entry will show the needed steps to create a SSL VPN via the web interface.

Creating the SSL VPN has many working parts that come together to make one of the best Remote access VPNs out there. In this example we are creating a Split tunnel VPN, and enabling Tunnel mode.

The SSL VPN is one of the best features of the device, it has an open license, so you can have as many people connect as the device hardware supports. No crazy licensing for SSL VPN as with Cisco and Sonicwall. You can also utilize the VPN to get select information to users based on their AD security group. For example if you have a business with users traveling all the time, you might have a certain portal for one group of users and have their internal bookmarks and file shares, and completely different portal for office staff users.  Another great benifit is in the protocol itself, SSL is almost never blocked by outbound firewall policies. A lot of companies (hotels, hospitals) and educational institutions block IPSEC from leaving the network which stops your remote access VPN from connecting.


1. Create Address object for SSL Subnet and Internal networks

2. Create route for new subnet

3. Create Users/User group for user authentication

4. Config the VPN Portal

5. Config the VPN settings

6. Create the SSL VPN policy, including the projected subnet for Split Tunnel.

7. Create policy to allow traffic from the Lan to SSL, and from SSL to Lan.

1. Create Address object for SSL Subnet and Internal networks

We will create an address object with the Subnet of our SSL VPN clients. I would recommend using a crazy private IP subnet as to not conflict with Home/work local subnets.


Then we need to create another object for our Protected subnet. This is our internal network that we want the remote user to be able to access. If there are multiple subnets it might be better to add an address object group.


2. Create route for new VPN subnet

Since the SSL VPN is a “interface” we will route our subnet across of it. Notice our device is ssl.root, and that removes our needed gateway.


3.  Create Users/User group for user authentication

There are many different ways to configure authentication within the device. You can authenticate VPN users against LDAP, Radius, or local accounts. In this example I am just using local accounts, but using LDAP or Radius is a much better option. You can use just individual users, or groups to authenticate to within the VPN policy. I would go ahead and create a User group so that you can add any local, radius, or ldap users into it in the future.


I am creating a user group call SSL_VPN and in this case its just local. If I wanted to add a LDAP/Radius server to authenticate against, I could just add the remote server. If I wanted to get even more specific and say authenticate against a security group within LDAP I would just modify the remote server portion of the user group to add that.

4. Config the VPN Portal

The portal is the landing page of the SSL VPN. It is a great place to add book marks, shortcuts for RDP, or info for users. For example, we have an internal sharepoint site for users, by placing a link on the portal, users they just have to click and Whola, instant access. This is great because installing the VPN client which allows tunnel mode requires admin access to the PC. If a user is traveling or at a hotel they might not have this access. Other great uses are RDP session, and file shares. Both will launch in a Java applet window and allow you access to RDP/SMB.


We are using the “Full-access” Portal, this is just a name. I added the IP Pool for the clients to get tunnel addresses. You can customize the page to any specification. A note, you can also fully edit your VPN login page to reflect your company logo, etc. You can do this by adding in the feature under system – admin- features and enabling it.

5. Config the VPN settings

The VPN settings consists of the IP pool, Port used, encryption strength, and of course DNS/WINs servers. If you want to push your domain name so that DNS will resolve to this interface, its a CLI command. I will do another entry on it.


6. Create the SSL VPN policy, including the projected subnet for Split Tunnel.

This is where we actually allow access from the internet to our VPN portal. It is also where we specify our Protected subnets, which are the subnets injected into the clients routing table. You can also specify what portal certain users will see. For example, if you had a group of teachers who needed to get to the Teacher portal, and an admins group that needs to have a different portal and ACL to get to all servers.


Notice we select VPN as type, then incoming interface. The Local protected subnets are what we are pushing into the routing table of our client.

Next create an new Authentication policy.


From here select your user group that we created earlier, if you want individual users select those as well. You can also enable UTM if you feel its needed.

Now just save all the settings

7. Create policy to allow traffic from the Lan to SSL, and from SSL to Lan.

For the last step we need to create policies to allow traffic in both directions. By default all traffic is blocked between interfaces int he firewall. The SSL VPN is an interface, so we need to allow traffic to it.

Just create a policy with Source interface being ssl.root, and allow all traffic to your LAN (or however you see is best to secure) and then another policy from LAN to ssl.root.

Thats it! There are some optional configs dealing with Certs on both sides, and much stronger encryption methods.



If you have a MPLS, or DMZ interface where you need  VPN clients to access you will have to create another VPN policy going from WAN to – DMZ, or WAN to MPLS and just mirror the WAN-to-lan SSL VPN policy. You will also have to modify the protected subnets with that interfaces network. If anyone has trouble with this feel comment and I will explain better.

On top of that you will need to create more ssl.root to DMZ and DMZ to ssl.root policies to allow access between the interfaces.

Monitoring the Vyatta firewall

You can monitor the firewall in much the way of a Debug command in Cisco. By using the command “Monitor firewall”. The blocked or allowed attempts will show up on the console.

You can monitor just the rule, or the whole firewall policy. By specifying the monitor to run in the background you still have control of the Vyatta.

The command is:

monitor firewall name OUTSIDE-IN background

You can also use the log keyword in the firewall rule to get the results of the rule to show up in the logs.

To give a better example lets create a firewall policy, assign it to an interface and then monitor the rule. I have two rules, one to block ICMP and one to allow everything else. To make this policy stateful I modified the firewall State-policy and set it to allow return traffic by default. Below are my firewall settings:


Now lets say I want to monitor what gets blocked in rule 5 – my block ICMP rule. I would do the following:

monitor firewall name out rule 5 – the name of my policy is “out”, rule 5 blocks ICMP.


The image shows the output. All traffic matching that rule gets displayed on the screen. This is a great way to debug firewall polices to see what gets blocked or allowed. For example, if I monitored just the firewall policy i would get all traffic allowed or blocked, if I monitored rule 10 then I would get all traffic other than ICMP which would be allowed.

Below are the “show configuration commands” of the firewall policy if you are interested.

set firewall name out rule 5 action ‘drop’
set firewall name out rule 5 log ‘enable’
set firewall name out rule 5 protocol ‘icmp’
set firewall name out rule 10 action ‘accept’
set firewall name out rule 10 log ‘enable’
set firewall name out rule 10 protocol ‘all’
set firewall name out rule 10 source address ‘’
set firewall state-policy established action ‘accept’
set firewall state-policy invalid action ‘drop’
set interfaces ethernet eth1 firewall out name ‘out’