This entry shows how I have been setting up ICX switches with Fortinac.
In this scenario my Fortinac is located at 192.168.226.248, the switch is 192.168.226.53, and my SNMP community is “snmp”. I know very secure. The switch I am working with is a Ruckus 7250 running SPR08092a.bin
These are the settings that I am putting into my switch:
logging host 192.168.226.248 snmp-server host 192.168.226.248 version v2c snmp
Thought this might be useful for anyone who needs to make a lot of changes quickly to many vlans. In ICX vlans, and vlan interfaces (routing interfaces) are different. In this example I will show how to quickly edit each vlan in a range and modify STP settings.
Sacred-CORE#show vlan brief
System-max vlan Params: Max(4095) Default(1024) Current(1024) Default vlan Id :999 Total Number of Vlan Configured :29 VLANs Configured :2 32 50 to 51 128 132 136 138 140 142 144 146 150 152 154 156 160 162 164 220 224 240 250 255 324 332 350 500 999
As you can see we have a lot of Vlans, so lets modify the STP settings for all of them. I will just copy the vlans listed above and basically paste them in since I want to modify all vlans.
This entry details the config for setting up and deploying VRFs on a Ruckus ICX 7250. Recently I had an issue where a client had a new ISP and that ISP gave them the Customer WAN /30 subnet, then routed their Customer LAN subnet (Public usable addresses) to their side of the /30. The customer did not want any extra equipment installed like a router to handle the WAN routing, so the next best thing was to split the Ruckus 7250 switch into a WAN/LAN router – One switch to rule them all! The VRF feature is in Ruckus’s Layer 3 Premium feature set so a license will be needed. In this scenario the 7250 is the local gateway for all Vlans – so local LAN routing, and the Internet router.
Of course there are a lot of problems with the following design, like single point of failure, but its a small site, with 1 48 port switch, Fortigate firewall and cloud Voip SD-WAN router. The purpose of this design is to allow the Voip SD-WAN solution to be outside the firewall, so using the 7250 for both LAN/WAN routing really and it worked well. If the ISP would have not required a customer routing device we would have just setup a Internet-Vlan, set Fortigate/INSpeed to public IPs, and placed them in that vlan. But, the ISP is requiring a routing device in this instance.
Here is the design.
I think the ICX series supported VRFs when it was running Brocade firmware, but I would recommend upgrading to Ruckus’s ICX firmware – Version number SPR08080 or greater. Of course the device has to be running the Routing firmware not the switching code. The VRF feature is in Ruckus’s Layer 3 Premium feature set so a license will be needed.
First lets enable the VRF, and increase the amount of routes.
These commands will enable the VRF functionality and it will need you to reboot.
Next we can start configuring our VRF. In this case my /30 will be 188.8.131.52/29 – so .1 will be the ISP, .2 will be us. I will setup the routes for the VRF, and then the Vlan interface and apply the /30. There is a keyword in the VE config to make sure its associated to a given VRF. Within the VRF config you need to specifcy the Route Identifier – only matters locally.
vrf INTERNET-VRF rd 11:11 ip router-id 184.108.40.206 address-family ipv4 ip route 0.0.0.0/0 220.127.116.11 exit-address-family exit-vrf
vlan 300 name INTERNET-VRF by port — My WAN Vlan for Fortigate WAN and SD-WAN router WAN interface. The Customer LAN Subnet goes here. untagged ethe 1/1/19 ethe 2/1/23 router-interface ve 300 spanning-tree 802-1w spanning-tree 802-1w priority 4094 ! vlan 400 name ISP-VRF by port — /30 ISP network untagged ethe 1/1/24 router-interface ve 400 !
interface ve 400 vrf forwarding ISP-VRF – This is the command to associate the VE to the VRF ip address 18.104.22.168/30
interface ve 300 vrf forwarding INTERNET-VRF – This is the command to associate the VE to the VRF ip address 22.214.171.124/29
Here is a subset of my user config – Vlan 40 – this is where most of the desktops go, and the gateway in this case 10.6.40.1/24 lives on the switch, on the default VRF.
vlan 40 name Computers by port untagged ethe 1/1/1 to 1/1/18 ethe 1/1/21 ethe 2/1/1 to 2/1/18 ethe 2/1/22 router-interface ve 40 spanning-tree 802-1w spanning-tree 802-1w priority 4094 ! ! show run int ve 40 interface ve 40 ip address 10.6.40.1 255.255.252.0
ip helper-address 1 10.6.10.10
Thats it! A show IP route of the default VRF (Switching VRF) shows:
#show ip route Total number of IP routes: 9 Type Codes – B:BGP D:Connected O:OSPF R:RIP S:Static; Cost – Dist/Metric BGP Codes – i:iBGP e:eBGP OSPF Codes – i:Inter Area 1:External Type 1 2:External Type 2 Destination Gateway Port Cost Type Upti me 1 0.0.0.0/0 10.6.254.2 ve 254 1/1 S 1d17 h — This is the Fortigate 2 10.6.0.0/22 DIRECT ve 1 0/0 D 1d17 h 3 10.6.10.0/24 DIRECT ve 10 0/0 D 21h4 m 4 10.6.40.0/22 DIRECT ve 40 0/0 D 1d17 h 5 10.6.100.0/24 DIRECT ve 100 0/0 D 1d18 h 6 10.6.254.0/24 DIRECT ve 254 0/0 D 1d17 h 7 172.16.6.0/29 DIRECT ve 650 0/0 D 1m5s 8 192.168.6.0/24 DIRECT ve 1 0/0 D 1d17 h 9 192.168.100.0/24 172.16.6.1 ve 650 1/1 S 1m4s
But, if we specifcally show the Internet-VRF routes:
#show ip route vrf INTERNET-VRF Total number of IP routes: 3 Type Codes – B:BGP D:Connected O:OSPF R:RIP S:Static; Cost – Dist/Metric BGP Codes – i:iBGP e:eBGP OSPF Codes – i:Inter Area 1:External Type 1 2:External Type 2 Destination Gateway Port Cost Type Uptime 1 0.0.0.0/0 126.96.36.199 ve 400 1/1 S 21h4m 2 188.8.131.52/30 DIRECT ve 300 0/0 D 20h57m 3 184.108.40.206/29 DIRECT ve 400 0/0 D 21h5m
And there we have it, the devices is now in two VRFs, a default and INTERNET-VRF with specific interfaces assigned to it. If you want to test pinging from that VRF specifically you can use the following commands:
#ping vrf INTERNET-VRF 220.127.116.11 Sending 1, 16-byte ICMP Echo to 18.104.22.168, timeout 5000 msec, TTL 64 Type Control-c to abort Reply from 22.214.171.124 : bytes=16 time=1ms TTL=122 Success rate is 100 percent (1/1), round-trip min/avg/max=1/1/1 ms.
Currently I am working with a client who has lots of Ruckus ICX 7250 PoE+ switches. These have been great switches, lots of features such as: large PoE budget, 10G, VRF/Routing capability. Recently the client has rolled out Mitel headsets that charge from their larger handset phone stations.
Strange issue has been happening though, when they put the headset in to charge the phone reboots, and the switch throws an error (you will see below) and basically kills power to the port, thus everything reboots. After some quick analysis it seems like the phone station is requesting 802.11AF (15.4 watts max) and then when the headset gets turned on to charge it spikes above 15.4 watts for a bit, and making the switch rightly throw the error. The phone pulls somewhere around 1-3 Watts, and the headset seems to add an additional 3 (according to its documentation). Still well within range of 802.11AF.
This is an assumption, I might go through and do some debugging and see if that’s the exact issue, but adding some commands to the switch did fix the problem. So before we go through commands and analysis; the commands used to resolve the issue basically set each port to 802.11AT which allocates 30 Watts for the port. An issue with this: simple math indicates that if we have a 48 port switch with a 740 Watt PoE budget, we can only really give each port 15 watts if every port is powered up. That’s true, but luckily we aren’t going to run into that problem here. Few headsets/Power needing ports.
When the headsets were plugged in the switch started throwing these errors:
Dec 20 19:41:27:C:System: PoE: Power disabled on port 1/1/19 because of PD overload. Dec 20 19:41:27:C:System: PoE: Power disabled on port 1/1/19 because of PD overload.
This would then disable PoE on the port for a few seconds and make the phone reboot.
When checking to see how much power the phone was pulling the following was done prior to the fix commands – Please just look at Port 19:
The phone was showing up just asking for 3.6 Watts and it was only allocating 15.4.
Lots of ways to tackle the fix to this problem, the approach I used is to modify the allocated power by class – So instead of letting the switch decide how much power to allocate by letting the device tell it – I am forcing the switch to change the power class for the phones (in this case 3 ) to 4. This allocates a default of 30 Watts. Below is Ruckus’s outline for the Power classes
The commands to modify this:
interface ethernet 1/1/19 inline power power-by-class 4
After applying these commands check Port 19 out:
All devices are still requesting pretty much the same amount of power they were before except now we see the headsets requesting power as well. Not only that but each port does have 30 Watts allocated to it. So the thought that we could run out of allocated power if we had a lot of phones/PoE devices plugged in is a real concern. Right now, even though we are only using 47.7 Watts, the switch has provisioned 390.
There are better commands to use other than the power-by-class that I used. For example, since we know the phone with charging the headset only needs little over 4 Watts we could use the command “inline power power-limit 25000” to allocate 25 Watts instead of the full 30. This number could keep being modified to find the exact number where the port drops. Or you could just modify the ports with headsets only – But, like I mentioned above we have no real need to do that, so the power-by-class blanket command works fine in this case.
After applying the above command check out port 19’s PoE allocation:
Lots of ways to fix this issue, but all modify the amount of power allocated to the port.
I have been working with Brocade ICX and now Ruckus ICX for a few years now. They are awesome switches.
I was asked a couple of times about something that was happening when someone would try and set the untagged or access vlan on a port. They would get this error:
error – port ethe x/x/x are not member of default vlan
The reason we were getting this error is because other vlans were attached to port as either untagged or tagged. To put a port into a vlan other than default as ‘untagged’ we need to make sure no other vlans are bound to that port. To do this we can check what vlans are attached to the port. In this scenario my default vlan is 999. It would be 1 on a switch that it was not manually changed on.
switch#show vlan br eth 1/1/3
Port 1/1/3 is a member of 2 VLANs
VLANs 32 48
Untagged VLAN : 999
Tagged VLANs : 32 48
Great, so now we know its untagged 999 (default) but tagged those 2 other ports. We need to remove the tags of 32 and 48 on this port before we can add it untagged into vlan 16 – which is the goal
Added untagged port(s) ethe 1/1/3 to port-vlan 16.
switch#show vlan br eth 1/1/3
Port 1/1/3 is a member of 1 VLANs
Untagged VLAN : 16
Tagged VLANs :
Thats it! now we are untagged or access in vlan 16. But wait! what if we wanted to have it be a trunk port to allow vlans 32/48 and be native 16. Then we would use the ‘Dual port’ command with the modification of the untagged vlan like this:
dual mode 16 — means untagged 16, but allow whatever vlans are tagged to pass. Of course vlans 16,32,48 would need to be tagged on the port first. I will write another entry about that.
Within ZD we might need to enable LDAP look ups to facilitate in using Active Directory logins to the firewall for administration, or authentication for Guest pass creation/ZeroIT.
Recently I had to do this, and it had been a while, so I decided to write a short entry on it.
So in this case I am configuring LDAP for use with Guest pass so domain users have to sponsor guest wireless accounts.
Below shows the options for our Test-AD LDAP server. There are some key things here.
Notice in this case we are not using TLS.
The Base DN and admin DN are the location of the user who can perform lookups in AD. The best way to find this info is going to AD user/computers and under “View” enable “Advanced features” then go into the details of the user account- you will have a “attribute editor” tab. The User DN is located, if you double click that attribute you can copy it directly.
Next key attribute is “sAMAccountName” under key attribute – that attribute is really just the windows user login account name.
That’s it! I will do another entry on setting up guest pass where domain users can sponsor accounts.
Ruckus has finally built in the ability to use LLDP to find Access points. I was so excited when I found this out, I installed the newest firmware and was ready to be blown away – and alas.. no LLDP. So, what was wrong? LLDP is not enabled by default! You have to go into the AP group via CLI and enable LLDP. No biggie.
Hello all, I recently was given a strange task. An office needs to have everyone in there office on different vlans. The reason for this is that each user is developing software and they need to test VIA wireless to other wireless devices. Lots and Lots of broadcast, as well as different subnets. So, how can we separate each of these users wirelessly and give each of them their own “play space”? You can accomplish this a couple ways: We can have 100 different WLANs, each with their own Vlans, or use 1 SSID and use Dynamic Vlans to separate them out.
The tools I will be using are – Ruckus Wireless Zondirector, and APs, Microsoft NPS, and Wireshark to take a better look at what is happening at the packet level.
So first lets setup everything. We need to use 802.1x authentication for WLAN Access. I will not walk through all the steps here but definitely do another blog entry on setting that up. So lets assume as of now we have 802.1x working great for authentication.
Our next step is that we need to create new Security Groups in AD and add our users to them. I added groups that reflected the Vlan name. For example WIFI-VLan-150 and then added my user I want to get VLAN 150 to.
Next lets create our Radius Policies.
Create a new Network Policy- match the Group, add your Encryption and other settings. See below:
Then add your Constraints that you would like:
Next the magic happens – we have to add in our Radius attributes . These are Standard radius attributes. We will add 4 802.1x attributes.
Attributes to add:
1. Tunnel-Assignment-ID – String – Vlan ID.
2. Tunnel-Type – Select Virtual Lans (VLANS)
3. Tunnel-Medium-Type – Value – 802 – Commonly used for 802.1x
4. Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID – Value – String – Vlan ID. Note – I did not add this at first, this attribute is what fixed my issue, and successfully pushed the Vlan ID to my client.
Here is a screenshot of all the attributes:
Make sure this policy is above your default policies. The next screen shot shows my order of policies. Notice I have one for 666 vlan, and 150. Then there is a domain computer, then a catch all for domain users.
That’s it for Radius, now we need to create the WLAN for in Ruckus for our Dynamic Vlans. Remember, we are assuming everything works great with Radius authentication from the get go.
The main thing when creating the WLAN in Ruckus is to use 802.1x for authentication, and then under “Advanced” check the “Dynamic Vlan” box. You will notice I am using “SRV-dir03” For authentication (My Radius Server). Apply this and we should be golden.
To check and make sure you are on the correct vlan/wlan you can always check your ip address or look into Ruckus and see what your info is. You Notice mine –
Sometimes when we deploy Ruckus APs remotley over a VPN, they will come up in the Zondirector but will stay on provisioning. then reboot after a bit, and then come back in as provisioning. The reason this happens is that the extra overhead of the added IPSEC header
The cause is the MTU on the Ruckus ZD. Sometime you will have to lower this due to the overhead added to the packet with the IPSEC tunnel.
To lower the MTU of the ZD (First step in troubleshooting APs across a VPN) is to go to configure – APs – and towards the bottom of the page you will see the MTU setting. I would lower this all the way for testing – Lower to 850 or 900. After lowing give the APs 5 minutes to show up in the ZD.