I needed to find out what type of Optic was installed into a switch, and if it read up correctly. In most vendors its “show interface transceivers” or some other command. I struggled to find Ruckus’s – so I thought I would share.
To find the media type of the port – just use the “Show media” command – so easy!
For instance, I need to find out what type SFP is on eth 1/2/8, and if it read correctly. Check out the below:
Then, if I just want to check what all ports are: “Show media” by itself. Notice ports 1/2/1 and 1/2/3 are my stack ports – and I have DACs (twinax) in these ports.
This entry shows how I have been setting up ICX switches with Fortinac.
In this scenario my Fortinac is located at 192.168.226.248, the switch is 192.168.226.53, and my SNMP community is “snmp”. I know very secure. The switch I am working with is a Ruckus 7250 running SPR08092a.bin
These are the settings that I am putting into my switch:
logging host 192.168.226.248 snmp-server host 192.168.226.248 version v2c snmp
I have been working with Brocade ICX and now Ruckus ICX for a few years now. They are awesome switches.
I was asked a couple of times about something that was happening when someone would try and set the untagged or access vlan on a port. They would get this error:
error – port ethe x/x/x are not member of default vlan
The reason we were getting this error is because other vlans were attached to port as either untagged or tagged. To put a port into a vlan other than default as ‘untagged’ we need to make sure no other vlans are bound to that port. To do this we can check what vlans are attached to the port. In this scenario my default vlan is 999. It would be 1 on a switch that it was not manually changed on.
switch#show vlan br eth 1/1/3
Port 1/1/3 is a member of 2 VLANs
VLANs 32 48
Untagged VLAN : 999
Tagged VLANs : 32 48
Great, so now we know its untagged 999 (default) but tagged those 2 other ports. We need to remove the tags of 32 and 48 on this port before we can add it untagged into vlan 16 – which is the goal
Added untagged port(s) ethe 1/1/3 to port-vlan 16.
switch#show vlan br eth 1/1/3
Port 1/1/3 is a member of 1 VLANs
Untagged VLAN : 16
Tagged VLANs :
Thats it! now we are untagged or access in vlan 16. But wait! what if we wanted to have it be a trunk port to allow vlans 32/48 and be native 16. Then we would use the ‘Dual port’ command with the modification of the untagged vlan like this:
dual mode 16 — means untagged 16, but allow whatever vlans are tagged to pass. Of course vlans 16,32,48 would need to be tagged on the port first. I will write another entry about that.
The other day I had the need to plug a Ruckus Access point directly into the Fortigate firewall. The client only needed 1 AP, and connecting directly into one of the ports on the Fortigate was the best way – PoE was provided by an injector.
The question came up of how to create the Vlan interface when directly connecting the device to Fortigate.
In this example I will create the vlan on the Internal switch “lan”, and control the vlan from the Ruckus Zonedirector. This will create two separate logical interfaces. Internal, and Staff-Wireless, my newly created vlan. These two interfaces will require IPV4 policies to allow communication. If you have a lot of VLANs it might be a great idea to utilize Zones in the FW to reduce the number of firewall policies needed.
Lets get started
Vlan creation of Fortigate
So, lets create the vlan for “Staff-Wifi” Vlan 200. You can just create
Now lets put in the needed info.
The below shows the status of the interface:
Notice the VLAN ID – this is seen by right clicking the column settings and enabling that.
Thats it! The Ruckus AP will tag “Staff-Wireless” traffic as vlan 200. So, when the FGT sees the vlan tag of 200 on any ports in the lan switch, it will be treated as Staff-Wifi, thus getting all of its network and policies.
To make the AP work correctly, it needs to be plugged directly into the FGT or a switch behind the FGT that has the vlan created and that vlan would need to be tagged on both the AP and uplink to Fortigate.
Below shows the advanced options of my Ruckus ZD. I am tagging the Staff-Wifi SSID as vlan 200.
Remember on the Ruckus side only vlan 200 is being tagged for Staff-wifi AP management traffic is untagged – so it would be on my “LAN” switch network.
This is an amazing method for getting users in their correct groups in Fortigates. This way we can apply different security profiles to individual groups, all through one 802.1x login. This example is using Ruckus wireless , but will work exactly the same for any wifi vendor..
This method works by using 802.1x WPA2/AES logins on the Ruckus , and passing the users info over to the Fortigate by Radius accounting. Then on the Fortigate we are using RSSO (Radius single sign on) groups to collect the username/group that is sent to the Ruckus by the Windows NPS server. Lots of moving parts here, but it is really simple. I have had problems finding good documentation about Fortigate’s RSSO profiles – but they work great.
The goal of this project/entry is to have the Fortigate know the Username, IP and group (if assigned) of the user who just authenticated to the wireless network. Once you know these things you can apply different UTM policies to users VIA RSSO groups in the Fortigate. There are many good scenarios and uses for this – one example that I have is for a school network. I set this up recently for a school that has students and faculty authenticate through the same Ruckus controller, but to different 802.1x WLANs (SSIDs: Student and Faculty). The fortigate can then apply correct policies to each user (student or faculty) and therefore lock down student web surfing much more than a faculty member. You might be saying – you could just use captive portal on the fortigate,with LDAP groups. I would say yes, but that is another step users have to take, and its called “Single Sign on” for a reason.
So what is needed to make all this happen: Ruckus wireless using 802.1x, NPS (or any radius server) , Fortigate – that’s it.
I am going to assume that we already have Ruckus using 802.1x and NPS with no problems.
I had trouble at first setting this up, because I thought that that the NPS server should send the radius accounting info to the Fortigate, I was wrong. The controller is the Authenticator – therefore the device that knows about the authentication, and needs to pass on the info to the Fortigate. The Authenticator (Controller) needs to send the radius accounting info to the Fortigate.
That means you have a AAA server setup on the controller for 802.1x authentication, and a AAA radius accounting server pointing to the Fortigate.
Setup Radius accounting between Ruckus and Fortigate
First we need to create the connection between Ruckus and Fortigate via radius accounting.
On the Ruckus system, go to Configure – AAA servers – create a new server. Then click the box that says “Radius accounting” Fill in the IP of your Fortigate, and create a PSK between the two.
Next on our Fortigate we need to create a RSSO profile for the Ruckus system.
Feel free to name this Ruckus or whatever. The PSK has to match what you created on the Ruckus system. By default the RSSO profile uses the Class variable to match the users. You can change what to match, for example you could match by NAS-Port, User-Name, Class, etc.
So, if we go into CLI we can modify many of these settings. Below are the settings I have used
config user radius
set rsso enable
set rsso-secret ENC eoTXOqectoW0sjb5lLVW/7rr3BB0DocxlKeW64yfoIq7NTblyMc1TT9/V2M8m2LJmotwNrDYS+hOBSWV68wWULjuT88tOZHli7Nqqe8k5hoK4iHmLuG6x9R7apR9b+JU6O48mY8jiUaf48pY8wamagNdOALtrew6k+yWFzfd7gzo+qgag2sOI+Q46GnI1ybGPo6YQQ== set rsso-endpoint-attribute User-Name
Next we need to modify NPS to send the values that we will match on the Fortigate. In this example I am matching I am saying that if any Domain users authenticate through the ZD, then send the IP/Username/”Tag” to the Fortigate so it knows who to apply the correct firewall policy to. My “Tag” I am sending in is the Class Variable of “Domain Users”.. Something to note is this is not the given AD group, but a variable I am assigning that just references the group. I could say “Social media” if I wanted, then match on that.
So lets modify the Microsoft NPS policies to reflect what we need.
Remember, we are going from the assumption that 802.1x is up and working, and NPS is great. So, how do we match a variable from NPS on the fortigate? We could really use a ton of different variables. Lets use the class variable. To assign the class variable we will modify the the Network Policy in NPS that we want to apply a to a certain criteria.
I will modify my “Connections to Wireless VIA AD Authentication” Policy. Then once, you edit the policy and go to “Settings” tab, there will be a few attributes already listed . You may have some already or not. We will add the “Class” variable, and then assign it to what ever value we want to match in the firewall group. In this case I am setting my value to “Domain Users”.
So from the settings tab, lets click “Add” under the Radius Attributes standard section.
Select “Class” from the list of attributes that comes up, it will then ask you to enter a string that you want to set. This is the Keyword you will use to match the user to group in the Firewall. Just like use a FSSO group and matching the domain group. Some examples might be students vs teachers, or Domain users.
Press OK, and now we have the variable added, you can confirm as seen below:
Great, now we have the hard part done. Now, have some users log in to wireless, and see if you get correct RSSO users found in the firewall. you can check this my navigating in the firewall to User&Device – Monitor – Firewall
Awesome, it found my username, and my IP, but my group is blank, how can you apply a policy to user if they have no group? The answer – is just the same as the FSSO. If you do not have a firewall policy that references the Radius group that you created then no group, no filtering, nothing. So you need to create a new firewall policy and select the RSSO group you created as the source group. In my example the group is called Radius Domain Users.
To show a policy example check out below: My domain FSSO is above my RSSO policy.
Now that that is created and enabled, lets check the user monitoring – BAM! there it is, my group included.
Using RSSO and 802.1x is awesome, it allows you to kinda use a single pane of glass aspect and have Firewall, and Wireless be able to know who the user is just my them logging into the wireless network. Also, using 802.1x for wireless authentication and Key management is very secure. Having users known that are on wireless no matter what device can really be beneficial in reporting, either through Forticloud of FAZ.
Ruckus brought in the Guest Self Service portal in firmware 126.96.36.199 build 218 – so if you are looking to configure it please install this update first (Check release notes for proper upgrade path). After we are on build 218, lets get configuring.
So the Ruckus Guest self service portal is Ruckus’s first step in creating an “on boarding” process. It allows administrators to make sure that there is at least some kind of authentication on their guest WLANs. The portal gives guest users the ability to create their own guest pass, and the admin can set many options of the guest pass such as expiration, amount of devices that can be registered with this pass, and how the pass is given to the user – for example you can send it through text, email, just show it to them on the screen, or a combination of all. So this feature is great, and helps admins authenticate guest users with very minimal intervention.
So how do we configure this?
First we need to create a new Guest access policy. This is located under Configure – Guest Access. Create a new portal.
Lets now configure our portal page. A few options that are very important are:
Enable Zero IT Registration from the Guest Portal – Use this if you are also planning to register devices. I was confused by this at first. As you will see you have the option to use guest pass, or register a device. When you register a device you are just using Zero IT as normal to get on the secured network.
Authentication – Use guest pass for this. Since thats the goal.
Next you have a lot of options such as Terms of service and time out.
The main box you have to check is the “Guestpass Self-Service” box , you will then get a lot of options to do with that process and how to get the guest pass to the user. A few things to note, if you want to txt them, or send the pass through email you will need to configure a mail server and/or SMS server in the settings of the ZD.
If you notice there is a small “Restricted Subnet access” – Its kind of hidden in my opinion. This is very important. If this is used for guest access more than likely you will want to make sure that guests cannot access internal hosts. This is where that is done. This or the Layer 3 access list. Remember Ruckus does the filtering on the AP, so having to have a ACL on the router is not needed. Below if the full Guest access config.
That is about it for the Guest portal. Now we need to create a WLAN and use it for our guest access.
So, lets create a WLAN at configure – WLAN- create a new one.
Things to note – Select “Guest Access” Then select your Guest access Service portal you created.
Great!! All done, so what happens when you connect?
First you will be presented with the on boarding portal that asks if you would like to use Guest Access, or Register a device (Zero-IT).
Select “Guest Access”
On the next screen it will ask you for your Guest pass, but you don’t have one yet. Select the button to create a new pass. Note that you have the option to Query the status. This is a feature if you want to approve guests of getting a Guest pass before they do.
On the next screen you will be asked to fill out your information.
And here you go! you have your guest pass, which is valid for the length of time that you configured in the policy. Copy and keep this key. The ZD will automatically copy the key into the next page for you. Select to go to Guest Access portal.
You can see the the ZD copied the key for you. Just Press submit.
And there we go!! We are online. Ruckus does it again with making getting on Wifi easier. Now we have a built in On boarding portal.
You can view the Guest Pass and its config under Monitor-Guest pass to find out who the GP was assigned to, when it expires, and you can delete them from here as well.
Ruckus has done a great job giving us a simple but effective way to on board users for Guest and/or internal use.
Ruckus has finally built in the ability to use LLDP to find Access points. I was so excited when I found this out, I installed the newest firmware and was ready to be blown away – and alas.. no LLDP. So, what was wrong? LLDP is not enabled by default! You have to go into the AP group via CLI and enable LLDP. No biggie.
Hello all, I recently was given a strange task. An office needs to have everyone in there office on different vlans. The reason for this is that each user is developing software and they need to test VIA wireless to other wireless devices. Lots and Lots of broadcast, as well as different subnets. So, how can we separate each of these users wirelessly and give each of them their own “play space”? You can accomplish this a couple ways: We can have 100 different WLANs, each with their own Vlans, or use 1 SSID and use Dynamic Vlans to separate them out.
The tools I will be using are – Ruckus Wireless Zondirector, and APs, Microsoft NPS, and Wireshark to take a better look at what is happening at the packet level.
So first lets setup everything. We need to use 802.1x authentication for WLAN Access. I will not walk through all the steps here but definitely do another blog entry on setting that up. So lets assume as of now we have 802.1x working great for authentication.
Our next step is that we need to create new Security Groups in AD and add our users to them. I added groups that reflected the Vlan name. For example WIFI-VLan-150 and then added my user I want to get VLAN 150 to.
Next lets create our Radius Policies.
Create a new Network Policy- match the Group, add your Encryption and other settings. See below:
Then add your Constraints that you would like:
Next the magic happens – we have to add in our Radius attributes . These are Standard radius attributes. We will add 4 802.1x attributes.
Attributes to add:
1. Tunnel-Assignment-ID – String – Vlan ID.
2. Tunnel-Type – Select Virtual Lans (VLANS)
3. Tunnel-Medium-Type – Value – 802 – Commonly used for 802.1x
4. Tunnel-Pvt-Group-ID – Value – String – Vlan ID. Note – I did not add this at first, this attribute is what fixed my issue, and successfully pushed the Vlan ID to my client.
Here is a screenshot of all the attributes:
Make sure this policy is above your default policies. The next screen shot shows my order of policies. Notice I have one for 666 vlan, and 150. Then there is a domain computer, then a catch all for domain users.
That’s it for Radius, now we need to create the WLAN for in Ruckus for our Dynamic Vlans. Remember, we are assuming everything works great with Radius authentication from the get go.
The main thing when creating the WLAN in Ruckus is to use 802.1x for authentication, and then under “Advanced” check the “Dynamic Vlan” box. You will notice I am using “SRV-dir03” For authentication (My Radius Server). Apply this and we should be golden.
To check and make sure you are on the correct vlan/wlan you can always check your ip address or look into Ruckus and see what your info is. You Notice mine –
Sometimes when we deploy Ruckus APs remotley over a VPN, they will come up in the Zondirector but will stay on provisioning. then reboot after a bit, and then come back in as provisioning. The reason this happens is that the extra overhead of the added IPSEC header
The cause is the MTU on the Ruckus ZD. Sometime you will have to lower this due to the overhead added to the packet with the IPSEC tunnel.
To lower the MTU of the ZD (First step in troubleshooting APs across a VPN) is to go to configure – APs – and towards the bottom of the page you will see the MTU setting. I would lower this all the way for testing – Lower to 850 or 900. After lowing give the APs 5 minutes to show up in the ZD.